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Biology

See written review guidelines attachment. Paper to use: Azoulay R, Gilboa-Schech

See written review guidelines attachment.
Paper to use: Azoulay R, Gilboa-Schechtman E. 2022. The scarring impact of status loss in social anxiety: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 90: 102600
Use at least 8 references from the peer-reviewed literature (primary
and secondary papers), of which at least 6 references are from primary literature.

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Biology

Please read the attached instructions carefully. The legislator chosen is Van R.

Please read the attached instructions carefully. The legislator chosen is Van R. Johnson, the mayor of Savannah Georgia. Topic MUST be relevant to biology.
1. state your opinion,
2. explain the science behind your topic using supporting evidence,
3. request your legislator to act on your opinion.

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Biology

Each student will compose a Knowledge Mobilization Paper employing critical thin

Each student will compose a Knowledge Mobilization Paper employing critical thinking and drawing on Indigenous and Western scientific knowledge and ways of knowing. This is an opportunity to explore a topic from both a Western scientific and Indigenous perspective. Please choose a topic or issue of relevance to your career aspirations, current profession, or something that was of interest in class. In addition to reviewing literature on the chosen topic, each student will include relevant terms in Indigenous languages and a descriiption of the protocols followed to access knowledge from an elder or knowledge keeper. This provides an opportunity to see how knowledge is gained in the Western and Indigenous world. Each paper should address similarities, differences, and implications for using both Indigenous and Western Scientific knowledge on your topic.
ou paper should incorporate feedback you received from your outline and presentation. Final papers should be written double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 pt font, between 4 – 6 pages double spaced) not including title pages and references, and should include a minimum of six references. 4 of these references should be peer-reviewed journal articles and the other 2 can be non-journal sources such as conversations with elders or knowledge keepers, publications from Indigenous organizations etc.
Final papers will be assessed using the rubric below and should be written according to APA 6th ed. Final Papers are due on the last day of class. For this course, critical thinking* refers to “intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, and communication, as a guide to belief and action.”

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Biology

Please read the attached instructions carefully. The legislator chosen is Van R.

Please read the attached instructions carefully. The legislator chosen is Van R. Johnson, the mayor of Savannah Georgia. Topic MUST be relevant to biology.
1. state your opinion,
2. explain the science behind your topic using supporting evidence,
3. request your legislator to act on your opinion.

Categories
Biology

hey, please follow the attached document instructions, format and syllabus prov

hey, please follow the attached document instructions, format and syllabus provided.
please use simple language.

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Biology

I need you to finish writing the lab report for a systems physiology lab. I have

I need you to finish writing the lab report for a systems physiology lab. I have done most of the abstract, just need to finish the conclusion of the abstract. the methods section is done. I need help finishing the introduction and writing a discussion section. i am in the process of doing the results section myself right now. I will attach all the material needed. also the paper needs to have 4 peer revied papers cited in it in, which can be placed in the introduction and discussion, 2 and 2. also please follow the recomended length of each section, going over is points off.

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Biology

u wrote me an intro. my advisor at uni helped me re wrote it and he added commen

u wrote me an intro. my advisor at uni helped me re wrote it and he added comments &new changes to it( u will be able to see it if u open the file in words) he want me to add more words and gave me this article by Martin Grootveld ( u also put it for me ) he want me to add more from it to my introduction. (he wants graphs also)

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Biology

For each of the major 4 classifications of tissue (epithelial, connective, nerve

For each of the major 4 classifications of tissue (epithelial, connective, nerve, and muscle), you need to come up with a disease associated with EACH of the 4. For the disease, you need to discuss its epidemiology, the histological characteristics of the disease compared to what the normal histology is, and the role histotechnologists play in helping diagnose it – with focus on immunohistochemistry (IHC antibodies, what they are staining, and why that helps the diagnosis). For each tissue type, it should be no less than 1.5 pages double spaced. No images. For each completed portion, I will give 5 points to your previous exam, for a total of 20 possible points added to the previous exam. I will be running it through Turnitin to check for similarities between other papers. I expect a minimum of 3 references per tissue type. There is no rough publish for this – so make sure it is entirely in your own words, if there are too many similarities in the Turnitin, I will not accept that portion of the extra credit.

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Biology

Students will be assigned a topic that focuses on a genetic disease or a procedu

Students will be assigned a topic that focuses on a genetic disease or a procedure and be asked to conduct a literature review. Students will critically evaluate information obtained from scientific journals, books and online scientific databases (medline, NCBI (pubmed.gov), and GALILEO; all the sources should be from reliable databases). At a minimum of 10 references should be used for the preparation of the paper. The paper should be 10 pages double spaced in length and not to exceed 10 pages, the cover page and a page for references will not be counted as part of the 10 pages. The paper must include diagrams, figures, and tables with appropriate figure legends and references. All references must be inserted appropriately within the text.

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Biology

Directions Accurately measuring the volume of liquids, weighing chemicals, and a

Directions
Accurately measuring the volume of liquids, weighing chemicals, and adjusting the pH of
solutions are routine procedures in a working laboratory environment. This assignment is
designed to provide you with an overview of the general skills and knowledge you would need to
perform such tasks.
Before completing this assignment, you should ensure you have read your textbook –
particularly the section entitled pH, Buffers, Acids, and Bases. Answers should be concise and
well written. Make sure you correctly explain your thought process and provide all the necessary
information.
Question 1
The pH of a solution describes its acidity or alkalinity: Describe how pH and H3O
+
concentration
are related and explain why diluting an acid raises the pH, but diluting a base lowers the pH.
Question 2
Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) is a commonly used buffer for experiments in biology because
its pH and ion concentrations are similar to those in mammalian organisms. It works in a similar
fashion to the blood plasma buffer mentioned in the textbook, but using dihydrogen phosphate
ions and hydrogen phosphate ions for buffering through the following chemical reaction:
H2PO4

(aq) ⇆ H
+
(aq) + HPO4
2-
-(aq)
The equilibrium arrows depict that the phosphate ion (H2PO4-
) is dissociating further into two
component ions in solution, but at the same time H+ and HPO42-
ions are combining
simultaneously to form phosphate in solution. So, at any given point in time, and under the
appropriate conditions, there is an equal quantity of dissolved ions and combined ions in
solution. There is therefore always a hydrogen ion donor and an acceptor in solution.
Based on the equation above, which ion plays the role of hydrogen-ion donor (acid) and which
ion plays the role of hydrogen-ion acceptor (base) in PBS?
Question 3
The composition of PBS is 0.137M NaCl, 0.012M Phosphate, 0.0027M KCl, pH 7.4. Below is the
protocol to make 1 litre of 10x concentrate PBS.
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Combine the following:
• 80g NaCl
• 2g KCl
• 14.4g Na2HPO4 (dibasic anhydrous)
• 2.4g KH2PO4 (monobasic anhydrous)
• 800mL distilled H2O
1. Adjust pH to 7.4 with HCl
2. Add H2O to 1L
3. Autoclave for 20 minutes on liquid cycle. Store at room temperature.
Which ions are being produced by this process, assuming that each of the chemical compounds
dissociate into their constituent parts once they are dissolved in
water?
Question 4
Preparation of the correct buffer is key to any good biological experiment and it is important
that you understand how to calculate the mass of each chemical required to make that buffer
and what the resulting concentration of those constituents will be in moles per litre.
Your text book explains that moles are just a way to express the amount of a substance, such
that one mole is equal to 6.02 x 1023 particles of that substance. These particles can be can be
atoms, molecules, ions etc, so 1 mole of water is equal to 6.02 x 1023 water molecules, or 1 mole
of Na+
is equal to 6.02 x 1023 Na+
ions. Since different chemicals have different molecular
weights (based on the number of protons and neutrons each atom contains) 1 mole or 6.02 x
1023 atoms of oxygen (O) will have a mass of 16g whereas 1 mole or 6.02 x 1023 atoms of sodium
(Na) will have a mass of 23g
If you need more information on moles, please read Encyclopedia Britannica’s Moles website.
Although you may sometimes see it written as g/litre, the concentration of solutions is more
often described in term of molarity since it better defines the chemical properties of a solution
because it is proportional to the number of molecules or ions in solution, irrespective of
molecular mass of its constituents. However, it is not possible to measure moles on a laboratory
balance, so in the first instance chemicals are measured by mass (milligrams, grams, kilograms
etc) and the number of moles is calculated using the known molecular mass (often called
molecular weight and abbreviated to M.W.) of the chemical. As indicated earlier, the molecular
mass of a chemical is based on the number of protons and neutrons that is contained in each
atom (eg NaCl is made up of one molecule of Na, M.W. = 22.99g and one molecule of Cl, M.W. =
35.45g, so the M.W. of NaCl is 58.44g). These values can be found in the periodic table however
the molecular mass of chemicals is generally provided by any vendors of the products and so can
also be found on various suppliers’ websites.
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When the concentrations of solutions are as described as ‘molar’, this refers to number of moles
per litre eg a 3-molar solution of NaCl will contain 3 moles of NaCl in 1 litre of water. As
indicated above, the M.W. of NaCl is 58.44g, so in 58.44g there are 6.02 x 1023 NaCl
molecules ie 1 mole. So, for 3 moles of NaCl you would need to dissolve 175.32g in 1 litre of
water (175.32/58.44 =3) whereas If you only dissolved 29.22g of NaCl in 1 litre of water this
would result in a 0.5 molar solution (29.22/58.44= 0.5)
1. As directed you need to check the periodic table and pick up the atomic masses for each
of the component atoms in the compounds. For example, for NaCl you need to pick the
atomic weight of both sodium and chlorine and then add them to two decimal places to
obtain the molecular mass of NaCl. Be sure to multiply the atomic masses by the number
of individual atoms of the same element present in each compound before finally adding
to the masses of other component atoms of other elements to make up the total
molecular masses.
2. From there you can calculate the number of ‘moles’ of each compound by multiplying
the provided weight of compound used in the PBS solution by their respective molar
mass conversion factors (i.e. 1L divided by the molecular mass you have calculated in the
first step)
3. Now, the molarity in Mol per Litre (mol/l) is given by the ‘number of moles’ of each
compound (calculated in step 2 above) divided by the given volume of the solution.
For more information on how to calculate morality, refer to wikiHow’s 4 Ways to Calculate
Molarity.
Using periodic table found in your textbook, calculate (to 2 decimal places) the molecular mass
for each of the compounds used to make PBS.
Create the following table and fill it in with the mass of each component required to make 1 litre
of 10 x PBS (the recipe for 10x PBS is below question 2) and their final molar concentration in the
buffer calculated as described above.
Compound formula Molecular
mass (in
g/mol)
Mass of
compound
per litre of
10x PBS (in
g)
Molar
concentration
(in mol/l)
NaCl
KCl
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Na2HPO4
KH2PO4
Question 5
As previously stated, the concentration of NaCl, KCl and Phosphate in working strength 1 x PBS is
0.137M NaCl, 0.012M Phosphate, 0.0027M KCl, pH 7.4 How do they compare to the
concentrations you calculated for 10x PBS?
Watch the following videos and answer the remaining questions
• “Using an Electronic Balance” from Bio-Rad tutorials
• “Using a pH Meter” from Bio-Rad tutorials
• “Making a PBS solution” from Community College Consortium for Bioscience Credentials
Question 6
What is the first thing to do after putting a weighing boat on the balance?
Question 7
If you have excess reagent on the weighing boat, what should you avoid doing and why?
Question 8
If you had the choice between a 1-litre beaker and a 1 litre graduated cylinder, which one should
you use to measure volumes with maximal precision when making 1 litre of PBS? (you can
perform an internet search to find this if you are not sure of the answer)
Question 9
What should be done before measuring an unknown pH of a solution using a pH meter?
Question 10
The recipe for PBS says to dissolve compounds in 800 ml of water, adjust the pH to 7.4, then add
water up to 1 litre. The final pH should still be 7.4, because the pH of buffer solutions remains
stable when they are diluted as long as the concentration of its constitutive acid and base is not
too low.
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Why do you think the protocol does not say to dissolve compounds directly in 1 litre of water?
Question 11
The PBS protocol above says to adjust pH to 7.4 with HCl. What does this imply on the pH of 10x
PBS before adjusting the pH, would it be greater or smaller than 7.4?
Question 12
The last step in the protocol is to autoclave the 10x PBS solution. Why do you think this step is
important? Look up the definition of autoclave if you are unsure what it means.
Question 13
Taking into account your response to question 5, now that you have made a 10x PBS solution,
describe how you would prepare 1 litre of 1x working solution PBS, including which glassware
you would use. Will you need to adjust the pH again?