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Instructions for Assignment A. DIAGNOSES ________1. Depression B. See Announce

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Instructions for Assignment
A. DIAGNOSES
________1. Depression
B. See Announcements for journal article outline to be used. the goal is to complete each assigned review and use material to link findings to evidence-based treatment.
1. Find 1 factor analytic/ meta analytic recent (2010- present) journal article on each week’s diagnosis – Read & Outline them both. See guidline.
2. Find 1 applied treatment articles that focus on applications of research findings (2010 > present) in the sense that the study focuses on comparing treatments for each disorder.
D. Summarize each article using the following outline:
Title- Full Reference in APA Style
a. Introduction- Research Question
b. Literature Review Summary
c. Method
d. Results
e. Discussion- Limitations & Implications
E. The requirement is to find & review 2 recent (2010- present) articles- 1 from each category above, summarize them using the above outline in 4-5 pages, using APA Citation style. Articles should come from journals sponsored by the American Psychological, American Psychiatric, American Counseling Associations.
Guide to Research Paper (8 page minimum) and includes. MUST INCLUDE THESE
1. Diagnoses
2. Listing of DSM V Diagnostic Criteria
3. 1 Factor/Meta Analytic Article Summary
4. 1 Treatment/ Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT) Summary
BELOW IS A SAMPLE PAPER OF HOW IT SHOULD MIRROR/CONTENT
Research Assignment: Impulse Control Disorder
School of Education and Human Services, Amridge University
FT 7335, Advanced Therapy
Dr. Karl Kirkland
This is an example…………your paper should be longer……….minimum of 6 pages…………cite all articles that appear in your writing.
The Main DSM V Diagnostic Criteria for Impulse Control Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Diagnostic Criteria, 313.81 (F91.3)
A pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness lasting at least 6 months as evidenced by at least four symptoms from any of the following categories and exhibited during interaction with at least one individual who is not a sibling. Angry/Irritable Mood 1. Often loses temper. 2. Is often touchy or easily annoyed.3. Is often angry and resentful. Argumentative/Defiant Behavior 4. Often argues with authority figures or, for children and adolescents, with adults. 5. Often actively defies or refuses to comply with requests from authority figures or with rules. 6. Often deliberately annoys others. 7. Often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior. Vindictiveness 8. Has been spiteful or vindictive at least twice within the past 6 months. Note: The persistence and frequency of these behaviors should be used to distinguish a behavior that is within normal limits from a behavior that is symptomatic. For children younger than 5 years, the behavior should occur on most days for a period of at least6 months unless otherwise noted (Criterion A8). For individuals 5 years or older, the behavior should occur at least once per week for at least 6 months, unless otherwise noted (Criterion A8). While these frequency criteria provide guidance on a minimal lev-el of frequency to define symptoms, other factors should also be considered, such as whether the frequency and intensity of the behaviors are outside a range that is normative for the individual’s developmental level, gender, and culture.
The disturbance in behavior is associated with distress in the individual or others in his or her immediate social context (e.g., family, peer group, work colleagues), or it impacts negatively on social, educational, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
The behaviors do not occur exclusively during the course of a psychotic, substance use, depressive, or bipolar disorder. Also, the criteria are not met for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder.
Meta-Analytic Article Review
Petric, E., & Szamosközi, I. (2018). Parent-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder symptoms: A meta-analysis. Erdélyi Pszichológiai Szemle, 19(1), 47–73.
Introduction- Focus of the research. Study of the development of childhood disorders is significant (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Early-stage recognition of behavior disorders is important for prevention (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Disorder assessments may be provided by multiple informants (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). An issue is how to summarize and utilize the assessments of multiple informants (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Parents and teachers are key informants regarding children’s behaviors because parents and teachers spend much time with children (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The current meta-analysis combines many studies in order to review the usual level of consistency between parent and teacher informants (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018) related to Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). The parameters of agreement are to be used for clinical objectives and procedures (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018).
Literature Review. Because children spend most of their time at school, teachers are the most important behavior informants (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). And both teachers and parents are involved in the referral process (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). A questionnaire form is a common method of obtaining childhood behaviors information from parents and teachers (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Previous meta-analysis reports reveal moderate correlation between parents’ and children’s assessments (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Children are also informants but rarely report inappropriate behavior (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). A 2005 research study, The Attribution Bias Context (ABC) Model, is a useful tool for obtaining information about emotional and behavioral issues of children, based upon informant characteristics (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Parent – teacher communication is important for ODD diagnosis and treatment (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). A combination of the two views could lead to a more accurate consideration of a child’s behavior inn various situations (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Multiple assessments from different informants are considered the norm for diagnosing ODD (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The current research issue is to determine the amount of agreement between informants; how to synthesize informants’ reports; and which factors are to be included when evaluating research reports (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). There is limited ODD information because often ODD is studied with conduct disorder and attention/hyperactivity disorder (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The current study’s objectives are to estimate parent and teacher reports’ agreement regarding ODD and consider parent/teacher agreement on ODD related to children’s’ characteristics, such as clinical status, gender and age (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The meta-analysis considers combines results of many studies in order to measure the level of consistency between parent and teacher informants (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The parameters of agreement are to be used for clinical objectives and procedures (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018).
Method. The initial research began with searching for literature within several electronic databases, such as PsychInfo and PsycArticles (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Search keywords included parent, teach and informant (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The search was conducted between January 2018 and May 2018 (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Of the 586 studies reviewed, 78 were directly related to the research topic (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The 78 articles were further studies to compare them with eight inclusion criteria (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The research is limited to published studies (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The information across studies was related to parent and teacher ratings of children’s oppositional behavior (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The assessment of oppositional behavior was performed by use of a questionnaire, schedule and scale (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The mean effect size was calculated (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The goal was to assess the relationship between parents’ and teachers’ ratings of ODD symptoms (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Also, to further understand the relationship, a separate effect size for moderator variables was assessed (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Heterogeneity and publication bias were considered (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Also, an adjusted effect size was presented (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018).
Results. The study characteristics included an estimate of the combined parent-teacher agreement size (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). A mean effect size analysis was included within the meta-analysis (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Also, moderator analysis was completed in order to review the moderators (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Also, publication bias was measured (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The overall effect size was significant and moderate, (r=.26, p<.001) (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). There was low agreement between parents and teachers (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The moderators, gender, age and clinical status, were not significant (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018).
Discussion/Implications. Only a few studies have examined parent/teacher agreement related to ODD symptoms (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). The current meta-analysis was important because it provides a combined view of the topic (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Low agreement between teachers and parents may indicate both groups are able to provide key information for evaluation of ODD symptoms (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). And there could be other reasons for differences between informant ratings (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). A question about low informant agreement is how to aggregate ratings for maximization of clinical decision-making processes (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). Further investigation is needed to understand moderator significance in parent/teacher agreement (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018). A limitation of the current meta-analysis is that the number included studies is small. Another limitation is that the informant characteristics were not included, even though characteristics could be important moderators (Petric & Szamosközi, 2018).
If the writer were to design a diagnostic screening instrument for ODD, would agree with the writers of the current study and ask if informant characteristics are important moderators. Would also ask if school counselors could be trained to initially recognize and make recommendations for analysis of ODD. Would perhaps also ask if school counselors should be included as informants of ODD symptoms.
References (for 1st article
Randomized Clinical Trial Article Review
Goertz-Dorten, A., Groth, M., Detering, K., Hellmann, A., Stadler, L., Petri, B., & Doepfner, M. (2019). Efficacy of an Individualized Computer-Assisted Social Competence Training Program for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorders/Conduct Disorders. Frontiers in psychiatry, 10, 682. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00682 (Links to an external site.)
Introduction – Focus of Research. Aggressive behavior problems often persist from childhood to adolescence (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). And children with aggressive behavior problems may not develop well and may have other issues such as academic under-achievement (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). The current study tests the efficacy of individualized social skills training by computer for children who experienced aggressive behavior issues (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019).
Literature Review. Aggression towards peers is a better predictor of maladaptive outcomes, than aggression towards teachers and parents (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). Parent training is effective for addressing Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD). And child-based interventions that address children’s social skills with peers are considered promising (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). An advantage of the interventions for peer-related aggressive behavior is that the child can be trained apart from the parent and other adults (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). Effects are modest though (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). A disadvantage of group-based training is that it is not individualized for each child (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). And grouping children for modifying social skills could lead to antisocial skills and other unwanted skills (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). There are moderate and stronger efficacy data regarding interventions that include individualized social skills training (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). When incorporated with face-to-face ODD treatment, Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) may improve treatment effects of ODD. Computerized clinical programs have not been examined as clinical samples (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). A few preventive approaches include cCBT (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). One interactive social skills training program designed to treat male children with ADHD improved the participants social problem-solving skills (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). The current study includes a clinical sample of children with ODD/CD. The program was designed to determine the efficacy of a computer-assisted social competence training program for children with aggressive behaviors (ScouT).
Method. ScouT for children, aged 6 – 12, was designed to improve peer-related aggression (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). And an aim of the ScouT research was to treat previous weeks’ factors of aggressive behavior of each child (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). The study design, part of a larger clinical trial, was approved by the University Hospital Cologne (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). Data was reviewed three times during the study: 1) at the start of the 8-week waiting phase; 2) at the end of the 8-week waiting phase and before the 16-week treatment phase and 3) at the end of the intervention (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). Hospital outpatient units and other medical and social entities cooperated with recruitment efforts (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). ScouT treatment includes a manual and interactive DVD (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). The children learn to solve peer conflicts without using aggressive behavior by means of learned cognitive, emotional, and behavioral tools (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). The ScouT method combines traditional social skills training and cognitive behavioral methods (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). The current study included 16 weeks of child sessions which were time for 50 minutes each and two psychoeducation sessions with parents (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). Fifty patients were included in the ScouT program (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). Ninety-two percent were male, and the median age was nine years (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). Study measures included diagnosis of conduct disorders, aggressive behavior-maintaining factors, child aggressive behavior problems/prosocial behavior, treatment integrity, and adherence of patients and parents (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). Statistical analysis considerations were analysis of ScouT treatment effects and treatment of missing values (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019).
Results. The results were measured as factors of treatment integrity, adherence and effects (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). Also, child-reported outcomes and clinical significance were result factors. Details of clinical significance are (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019):
In line with the study inclusion criteria, all patients had a high symptom score (Stanine ≥ 7) before treatment at the pre1 and pre2 assessments on the parent-rated SCL-DBD total score. At the post-assessment, 46% of patients (n = 23) had dropped below this cutoff (indicating normalization), while 54% (n = 27) of patients remained in the clinical range. (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019, page 8)
Discussion/Implications. The present study is considered the first to evaluate the effects of computerized social skills training for clinically treated ODD children with aggression toward peers (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). Primary and secondary treatment outcome measures as measured by parents were large (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). Also, the study’s children highly rated the outcome effect of the maintaining factors of peer-related aggression (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). A limitation of the research is that only 8% were female (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019). Despite the limitation and others, the study reflects that computerized individual treatment for peer related aggression is effective (Goertz-Dorten et. al., 2019).
If the writer were to design a diagnostic screening instrument for ODD would perhaps consider an isolated study as opposed to a study within a larger study. Would perhaps also limit research sample to ODD patients, rather than include a larger range of potential participants.

References
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Association
Goertz-Dorten, A., Groth, M., Detering, K., Hellmann, A., Stadler, L., Petri, B., & Doepfner, M. (2019). Efficacy of an Individualized Computer-Assisted Social Competence Training Program for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorders/Conduct Disorders. Frontiers in psychiatry, 10, 682. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00682 (Links to an external site.)
Petric, E., & Szamosközi, I. (2018). Parent-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder symptoms: A meta-analysis. Erdélyi Pszichológiai Szemle, 19(1), 47–73.

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